Professor Roth came to Duke University in 1973 as an assistant professor, and is currently a professor in the Department of Psychology and Neurosciences. She served as chair of that department from 1999-2002, and worked as special assistant in both the President's and the Provost's offices following her term as chair. Roth was appointed as Dean of the Social Sciences in Arts and Sciences in 2004 and served through the 2005-06 academic year. She has been Vice Provost for Interdisciplinary Studies since 2006.
Professor Roth's scholarly publications have focused on the process of coping with traumatic life events. She is well known for her studies of sexually victimized women, including clinical treatment studies of adult survivors of childhood incest, and she has served as president of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Roth has been the recipient of the Trinity College Distinguished Teaching award for her Psychology of Women course, and has served as dissertation advisor for 26 Ph.D. recipients in psychology. She chaired the executive committee of Duke's Women's Initiative and the Provost's Women's Faculty Development Task Force.